Revised 30 August 2021

The Green Growth movement claims that reductions in material production and consumption can be implemented by decoupling growth in the economy from that of energy. The energy and material requirements of many products and services can be reduced, but there are physical and thermodynamic limits to what can be achieved (Jackson, 2009). 100% absolute decoupling is impossible. Regardless of the extent that decoupling is possible, decoupling will not necessarily result in a decline in the production and consumption of materials and fossil fuels due to the rebound effect. 

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