Revised 1 September 2021

No one is going to repeal the second law of thermodynamics, not even the democrats. - Kenneth Boulding

Energy is involved in the transformation of all physical systems, including the growth and maintenance of different forms of life. Humankind's survival is totally dependent on the access and use of energy in the form of food and the combination of energy and concentrated minerals in its technology. 

All forms of energy are inter-convertible and when conversions occur, they do so according to rigorous laws of exchange. The laws of clas­­­­­­sical ther­modynamics were derived and defined as the results of ex­periments in which macroscopic visible-to-the-eye prop­erties such as tem­perature, pres­sure, and volume could be measured directly. The prin­ciples and laws of classical thermody­namics were formalised by Clausius (1867) who based his work on the earlier writings of Rumford, Mayer, Joule, and Car­not.